Halkidiki, 2-8 October, 1994



The Halkidiki ENRICH Seminar / Workshop has been attended by more than 100 scientists from 22 countries, 12 coming from eastern Europe. Lectures and individual seminars have been focused in major topics of Global Change, including Climate Change, man’s impact on the environment, regional issues, Technologies and Environmental Engineering for Global Change and Biochemical Cycles. This gathering of eastern and western European scientists have unanimously identified subject areas for research for multinational projects with emphasis to Global Change in eastern Europe which they decided to submit to EC through the ENRICH office. It was also emphasized the need for building on existing mechanisms and the group unanimously agreed on the creation of a focal point for coordination of joint efforts in Global Change research and training to be the Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.


The following subject areas have been identified for joint research activities of importance to eastern European countries:


1.    Collection and Analysis of Geophysical Data for Global Change

2.    Global Change and Atmospheric Chemistry, including Air Pollution

3.    Ecosystems interactions and Global Change

4.    Human Dimensions of Global Change


These subjects areas are analysed as follows:



1.         Collection and Analysis of Geophysical Data for Global Change


This subject area includes basic and applied research in the field of geophysical data utilization with aim to present better understanding of the natural environment, environmental quality and its protection and thus facilitating he decision makings.


Collection and archiving of computer media for research use of climatological, atmospheric composition including radioactivity, magnetospheric and other geophysical data from 1850s until present and making them available for ENRICH and other international programmes.


It also includes quality control analyses of the “old” data, provisional analysis in relation to Global Change issue. Finally, it aims at establishing and/or improving electronic methods for further collection and exchange of geophysical data.



2.         Global Change and Atmospheric Chemistry Including Pollution


·       Key compounds to be considered

*     Ozone - climate issues

O3, hydrocarbons, NOx

*     Sulfur - Particle Issues of Global Pollution - Climate

SO2, particle loading size, optical / chemical properties

*     UV-B radiation / Ozone Layer Change


·       Activities

*     Measurements

Distribution of compounds in the region

Trends in the distribution

*     Modelling chemistry and transport

Distribution of compounds in the region

Role of pollution emissions

Comparisons with observations

Contribution from emissions to Global Change from emissions in  the region (primary compounds NOx, CH4, sulfur, ...)

*     Impact of air pollutants

Estimates of deposition of pollutants (acidic compounds)

Relation pollution levels / impact


·       Improvement of Networks

*     Continued studies on all relevant issues including new areas for research



3.         Ecosystems interactions and Global Change


·       Ecosystems - level elevated CO2 experiments

*     To determine the effects of elevated CO2 on ecosystem physiology

*     To assess whether terrestrial ecosystems will serve as a source or sink of C under elevated CO2

*     To determine how CO2 enhancement will affect ecosystem productivity


·       Development of Dynamic Global Vegetation Models

*     To develop a dynamic model of change in global vegetation that can be linked to GCMs


·       Crop Networks for Global Change impact assessment

*     To use existing datasets of phenological development to parameterise and validate crop production models.

*     To undertake elevated CO2 x temperature experiments to determine effects of global change on crops (i.e. not just on single plants) - include pest, disease and weeds - to aid model development.


·       Development of Dynamic crop - pest models

*     Essential for linking crop and economic models


·       Long-term agriculture experiments (> ca 20 years)

*     To analyze yield components over time

*     To use existing long term soil organic carbon data sets for SOC / SOM model validation



·       Long-term soil erosion data sets (monitoring)

*     To identify datasets which are both temporally and spatially adequate for erosion model development



·       Ecological complexity and Ecosystem Function

*     To conduct experiments to determine the role of complexity (biodiversity) in ecosystem function at a range of spatial scales

*     To determine how global change will affect complexity and the consequences for ecosystem function


·       Patch Scale Models of Ecosystem Dynamics

*     To develop patch scale models incorporating mechanistic information on responses of plant processes to global change


·       Land Use Changes (LUC)

*     To determine effects of LUC on ecosystems processes



4.         Human Dimensions of Global Change


·       Environment - motivated issues

(e.g. demographic / human health issues, resource accounting and valuation, impact of Global Change on critical zones and vulnerable ecosystems, land use).


·       Sectoral and Economic Topics

(e.g. social dimensions of resource use, market mechanisms and Global Change, material cycles / industrial growth, international trade and sustainability, costs and benefits of global environmental change, including damage and abatement cost valuation).


·       Institutional and Structural topics

(e.g. transnational decision making, law and regulation, management of resources and emissions, international institutions, implementations of international Global Change agreements, impacts of social, economic and political issues and institutions, equity issues (related to the distribution of income and natural resources among countries), environmental security and sustainable development, bodiversty loss in economies in transition: ethics issues and strategies for sustainable development).


·       Individual and Social Topics

(e.g. perception and assessment of Global Change, risk assessment, behavioral aspects and dilemmas, value systems and ethics, life styles).


·       Examples of possible outputs

*     Social sciences databases required for scenario building

*     Defined methodologies for data collection for scenario building

*     Conceptual and semi-quantitative models of social forces driving GC in specified areas

*     Integrated assessment of the environmental and economic costs and benefits

*     Improved understanding of environmental Global Changes consequent upon human activities

*     Guidelines for sustainable development

*     Input to global vulnerability assessment & national dependence studies

*     Socioeconomic analyses

*     National case study analyses

*     Improved methodologies for vulnerability assessment at regional and global scales

*     Identification of the causes of failure of existing management regimes

*     Improved understanding of the capacity of different societies to adopt to change through management action and of the time lags involved in responding to change.


There are at present a large number of projects and proposals (54) which have been collected at the focal point and which will be shortly communicated to EC through the ENRICH office. Finally, the Proceedings of the meeting are now under preparation.


A. Ghazi, P. Mathy, C. Zerefos