Fourth General Conference of the Balkan Physical Union, Veliko Turnovo, 22–27 August 2000









Sir Arnold Wolfendale (UK) – President EPS

Christos Zerefos (Greece) – President BPU

Luciano Maiani (CERN)

Metin Arik (Turkey)

Eva Zsolnay (Hungary)

Simeon Anguelov (UNESCO)

Anri Rukhadze (Russia)

Alvaro De Rujula (CERN)

Ivan Todorov (Bulgaria)

Viktor Urumov (FYR of Macedonia)

Djordje Bek-Uzarov (Yugoslavia)

Vladimir Kadyshevsky (JINR)

Wenzeslav Andrejtscheff (Bulgaria)

Alexandru Calboreanu (Romania)

Herwig Schopper (CERN)

Jan Nadrchal (Czech Republic)

Pierre Petroff (France)

Rumen Bojkov (WMO)

Stoicho Panchev (Bulgaria)

Azim Minxhozi (Albania)




Ivan Lalov (Bulgaria) – Chairman

Matey Mateev (Bulgaria)

Efsthatius Polychroniadis (Greece)

Nizamettin Erduran (Turkey)

Petar Atanasov (Bulgaria)

E. Burzo (Romania)

Luljeta Bejleri (Albania)

Ivan Zhelyazkov (Bulgaria)

Alexander Petrov (Bulgaria)

Nikola Sabotinov (Bulgaria)




Matey Mateev (Bulgaria) – Chairman

Mina Ilieva (Bulgaria)

Ivan Tyutyundjiev (Bulgaria)

Ivan  Nikolov   (Bulgaria)

Ivan Mitev (Bulgaria)

Ivan Panajotov (Bulgaria)

Christo Popov (Bulgaria)

Valeri Golev (Bulgaria)

Tsviatko Popov (Bulgaria)

Ruzha Simeonova (Bulgaria)

Boris Emanuilov (Bulgaria)

Viktoria Lazova (Bulgaria)

Vesselin  Donchev (Bulgaria)

Petko Petkov (Bulgaria)


Conference Chairman           Ivan Lalov – Chairman of the Union of the

                                                                     Physicists in Bulgaria


Conference Co-Chairmen     Ivan  Haralampiev Rector, University of

                                                                                   Veliko Turnovo

                                              Rumen Rashev Mayor of Veliko Turnovo


Conference Secretariat:        Matey  Mateev  Vice-President BPU

                                              Christo Popov

                                              Ivan  Nikolov

                                              Snezhana  Yordanova


Editor Balkan Physics          E. Rizaoglu



Editor Bulgarian Journal     Matey Mateev

                       of Physics




Date:                                      August 2227, 2000


Location:                                University of Veliko Turnovo

                                                “Sts. Cyril and Methodius”

                                                Veliko Turnovo



Organizations:                        Balkan Physical Union

                                                Union of the Physicists in Bulgaria

                                                Municipality of Veliko Turnovo

                                                University of Veliko Turnovo

                                                Faculty of Physics, University of Sofia


Address for Correspondence: BPU-4

                                                Faculty of Physics, University of Sofia

                                                5 James Bourchier Blvd.

                                                BG-1164 Sofia


Phones:                               +359 2   62 76 60

                                            +359 2   62 29 38

Fax:                                    +359 2 962 52 76


E-mail:                                BPU4@phys.uni-sofia.bg

Web:                                       www.phys.uni-sofia.bg/bpu4






The 4th General Conference of the Balkan Physical Union (BPU-4) will be held in the town of Veliko Turnovo, Bulgaria, from Tuesday 22 August to Sunday 27 August 2000. All the sessions of the conference will take place at the University of Veliko Turnovo “Sts. Cyril and Methodius”, which is beautifully placed on the hill of Sveta Gora. Veliko Turnovo is the ancient capital of Bulgaria situated in the central part of the country. Its buildings are perched as an amphitheater on both banks of the Yantra river and are strangely mirrored in its waters. Archeological diggings on Tsarevets and Trapesitsa Hills reveal its rich and turbulent past. First founded by the Slaves, the town of Veliko Turnovo became the capital of the Second Bulgarian Kingdom and the main  center of commercial and cultural activity. During the National Revival Period Turnovo was a leading town of the struggle for an autonomous Bulgarian Church and political freedom. Today the town of Veliko Turnovo is developing as a major industrial, tourist, cultural, and university center of Bulgaria. The Czech Professor K. Jireček (one of the first researchers in the field of Bulgarian history) called Veliko Turnovo unique, the only one town of its kind in the whole of Europe.





The BPU-4 Conference belongs to a series of triennial general physics conferences organized under the auspices of the Balkan Physical Union (BPU). The previous conferences were organized in Thessaloniki (1991), Ismir (1994), and Cluj-Napoca (1997). The BPU conferences are usually attended by about 800 scientists, educators and engineers involved in research, education and applications of physics.

In the last year of the Second Millennium the 4th BPU Conference is supposed to cover the most important results and trends in the fol­lowing fields of physics:


-          nuclear physics and nuclear energy

-          astronomy and astrophysics

-          gravitation and cosmology

-          atomic and molecular physics

-          high-energy physics

-          condensed matter physics

-          optics and lasers

-          plasma physics

-          theoretical and mathematical physics

-          computer science

-          meteorology and geophysics

-          environmental physics

-          alternative sources of energy

-          econophysics

-          applied physics

-          biophysics

-          physics education

-          history and philosophy of physics


-          In 2000 a Joint European Programme initiated by CERN, ESA and ESO Physics on Stage is started. Physics on Stage has as its main goal a better public understan-ding of physics through new methods of education and popularizing its achievements. See for more details www.estec.esa.nl/outreach/pos (central URL) and, also, www.skyarchive.org/ PoS_2000 (the national URL).

During BPU-4 actions and events will be carried out in the framework of the National Physics on Stage Programme


The Conference is open to all scientists from the Balkan countries. Participants from outside the Balkans are also welcome. Participation of young physicists and students is highly appreciated. A special student session is planned. Both invited and contributed talks will be given. Poster sessions will be organiz­ed, too. The Scientific Programme Committee will make selection for the oral and poster presentations.





The Scientific sessions will begin at 1000 on Tuesday 22 August 2000 and finish at 1300 on Sunday 27 August 2000. The language of the Conference will be English. No translation services will be provided. A preliminary list of invited speakers includes:


Sir Arnold Wolfendale   Durham, UK

Vilbur Venus                 CERN

Milko Iliev                     Houston, USA

Zlatan Tsvetanov           Baltimore, USA

Dimitar Sassalov           Harvard, USA

Pierre Petroff                Orsay, France

Rumen Bojkov              WMO

Kenya Goto                  Tokai Univ. Japan

Vladimir Lipunov           Moskow, Russia

Frank Pobell                  Rossendorf, Germany

Stephan Plachkov          Saclay, France

Christos Zerefos            Thessaloniki, Greece

Emmanuel Rosencher    ONERA, France

Claus Fröhlich               Davos, Switzerland

Harmut Zohn                Stuttgart, Germany

S. Gales                        Orsay, France

Claude De Traz             CERN

Manolis Floratos            Demokritos, Greece

Erich Sackmann            München, Germany

H. Eugene Stanley         Boston, USA

Valery Godyak              Beverly, USA

Hans Goedbloed            Nienwegein, The Netherlands

Carlos Ferreira              Lisboa, Portugal

J. Stoemenos                 Thessaloniki, Greece

Th. Karakostas             Thessaloniki, Greece

Demetri Photinos           Patras, Greece

Ivan Todorov                Sofia, Bulgaria

Mimoza Hafizi               Tirana, Albania

Metin Arik                    Istambul, Turkey

Stoicho Panchev            Sofia, Bulgaria

W. Andreitscheff          Sofia, Bulgaria

Sergey Petkov               SISSA, Italy

Emery Sokachev           Annecy, France





One original and two copies of 250 words abstract for selection and inclusion in programme brochure should be sent to



Conference Secretary

Faculty of Physics, University of Sofia

5 James Bourchier Blvd

BG-1164 Sofia



Abstracts should include title, names of authors, and affiliations. Abstracts should ar­rive not later than the deadline of April 30, 2000.


The authors are required to type the abstracts according to the following instructions concerning style, format and quality. The whole abstract (camera-ready) should be as clean as possible and should be typed in one column of 13.4 cm wide ´ 9.7 cm high area. Laser printers of at least 300 dpi are strongly recommended.

Authors should state (below the text area) the Abstract Category, their preference for oral or poster presentation and address for further correspondence. The Scientific Programme Committee will review the abstracts and make a final decision on the assignment of papers to sessions and the presentation mode. The authors will be notified (by e-mail preferably) starting from May 31, 2000 on the acceptance of their submitted papers for oral or poster presentation.


A list of all accepted paper/poster contributions will be sent out by June 15, 2000;


Abstract example (not in scale):




Author(s) name(s) (centered, bold)


Affiliation(s) (italics)


Title of the abstract should be as brief as possible. The text should be typed with a single-line spacing, 12 pt fonts and Times typeface or equivalent is recommended. The illustrations (if any) must not be half tone. Do not exceed the required size of 134 mm wide ´ 97 mm high text column. The lines in this example serve for eye’s guidance only.


[1] Reference





















Abstract category number:                  …..

Preference for presentation:   oral   poster

Address for correspondence: …………………


e-mail: ………………………………………...


Abstract categories:


1.        nuclear physics and nuclear energy

2.        astronomy and astrophysics

3.        gravitation and cosmology

4.        atomic and molecular physics

5.        high-energy physics

6.        condensed matter physics

7.        optics and lasers

8.        plasma physics

9.        theoretical and mathematical physics

10.     computer science

11.     meteorology and geophysics

12.     environmental physics

13.     alternative sources of energy

14.     econophysics

15.     applied physics

16.     biophysics

17.     physics education

18.     history and philosophy of physics





Contributions accepted for the Conference will be presented either orally or by poster.


The time allowed for the invited talks is 35 min plus 5 min for discussion.


The time for oral presentations is 12 min and 3 min additionally for discussion. For the presentations of the posters 1m ´ 1m stands will be provided. It is intended to display the posters over the whole conference period.





All the contributions will be published after a positive reviewer’s report as Conference Proceedings in Balkan Physics Letters and Bulgarian Journal of Physics before June 2001.


Papers to be published in the Conference Proceedings are subject to strict length and format requirements. The invited papers are limited to 6 pages (including abstract, tables and their captions, figures, figure captions, and references). Authors should use A4 paper size, single-line spacing and 11 pt fonts. The orally presented papers are limited to 4 pages (the same instructions). More details for the final layout of the papers could be found in the normal issues of Balkan Physics Letters and Bulgarian Journal of Physics.


The poster papers should be typed in camera-ready form and must not exceed 4 pages. The manuscripts should be prepared in conformity with the instructions of the example below.


Three copies of the manuscript, the original figures, and a signed copyright transfer form should be sent to the Editorial Office:



Conference Secretary

Faculty of Physics, University of Sofia

5 James Bourchier Blvd

BG-1164 Sofia



Example for typing the manuscripts in camera-ready format concerning poster contributions (not in scale):




Author one, author two1 (centered)


Affiliation (basic) – centered

1Affiliation (other) – centered


Abstract. The abstract should contain concise information about the content of the paper. It must not exceed 200 words.

Manuscript should be typed 11/2 line spacing in a single column of 6.27´9.69 inches (with one-inch margins everywhere) on a 210´297 mm paper (A4 paper size). It is preferably to use a word processor and laser printer (at least 300 dpi). Authors are requested to use Times typeface or an equivalent, 12 pt font-size is recom­mended. Manuscripts need to be free from corrections.





















[1] Reference




























The fees for the Conference including refresh-ments and a Conference Dinner are:


                                              Before          After


         July 1, 2000   July 1, 2000


Ordinary registration           25 USD      30 USD

Student registration             15 USD      20 USD

Accompanying person       10 USD      15 USD






BANK ACCOUNT: 1110219901 in USD


BANK CODE: 13073555


ACCOUNT HOLDER: Union of the Physicists in Bulgaria


INDICATION: BPU-4 Conference


You must have your bank statement for the fee’s transfer at the BPU-4 registration desk.




The Conference City of Veliko Turnovo is situated in the middle of Bulgaria. It can be reached either by rail (to the main railway station of Gorna Oryahovitsa), or by bus/car via the high ways Istanbul to Russe (way E 85) or Sofia to Varna (E 772). One can use the International express train from Istanbul to Bucharest via Gorna Oryahovitsa or the Trans­balkan city-star train from Thessaloniki to Bucharest–Budapest via Sofia and Gorna Oryahovitsa.


From the Gorna Oryahovitsa railway station there is a bus No.10 connection to the town of Veliko Turnovo. The ride takes about 40 minutes at a cost of 1.2 levs. (Prices may be a subject to change).

If you rent a car at the Sofia airport, the rental agency can provide information pertaining to the drive to the town of Veliko Turnovo.


Exchange rate: 1 lev = 1 DM


An Exhibition of scientific books and instruments will be organized at the Conference place.




A number of social events and excursions will be offered to the participants and the accompanying persons. The programme includes visits in the town of Veliko Turnovo, a whole day tour to the town of Gabrovo with the ethnographic museum of Etar, as well as visits to the historical reserve of Arbanasy, the Tsarevets ancient royal town, etc.


Sightseeing tour of Veliko Turnovo, Sound and Sight audiovisual spectacle, Arbanassi village (half day), Dryanovo Monastery (half day), Etura architectural and ethnographic complex (one day), Bozhentsi village (one day), Wine-tasting session in a wine cellar in the town of Lyaskovets (half day) – Gamza, Cabernet, Sauvignon, Aligote, Muscat Otonel, and Merlot wines.





·         April 30, 2000                Contributed abstract                                           submission deadline

·         May 31, 2000 Hotel reservation                                                 deadline

·         August 15, 2000           Contributed papers                                              submission deadline

·         August 22, 2000           Conference Starts









The registration will take place at the site of the BPU-4 Conference: the main building of the University of Veliko Turnovo.


On August 21, Monday:     9 a.m. – 12 p.m.

On August 22, Tuesday:    7 a.m. – 7 p.m.

On the other days:               9 a.m. – 5 p.m.





Both hotels and student hostels are available in Veliko Turnovo. Information on hotel accom­modation is given in attached leaflet of the BPU-4 Organizing Committee.


Student hostel rooms are available at 4 USD for a person per night.


* * * * Interhotel Veliko Turnovo


The hotel offers rooms accommodation in the price range of 51–100 USD for a person per night:


Person/double room with bath          $51.00

Person/double room-superior            $55.00

Single room with bath                         $60.00

Double room with bath                       $70.00

Double room-superior                         $80.00

Apartment                                             $100.00


Hotel and student hostel reservations should be send to



Organizing Committee



Deadline for hotel/student hostel reservations is May 15, 2000.